physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer
Army Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves, left, and physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer work on creation of the atomic bomb during World War II.
The world's first nuclear explosion occurred on July 16, 1945, when a plutonium implosion device was tested at a site located 210 miles south of Los Alamos, New Mexico, on the plains of the Alamogordo Bombing Range, known as the Jornada del Muerto. The code name for the test was "Trinity."
The first atomic bomb detonated over a populated area occurred on August 6, 1945 at 8:15 AM over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The bomb name was Little Boy.
According to the Washington Post, Oppenheimer deeply regretted that they had not finished the bomb in time to drop it on the Germans, but was feeling triumphant after the first bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
Leaflets dropped on cities in Japan warning civilians about the atomic bomb, dropped c. August 6, 1945. TO THE JAPANESE PEOPLE: America asks that you take immediate heed of what we say on this leaflet.
On October 30, 1961, the Soviet Union tested the largest nuclear device ever created. The "Tsar Bomba," as it became known, was 10 times more powerful than all the munitions used during World War II.
Explosive bombs were used in East Asia in 1221, by a Jurchen Jin army against a Chinese Song city. Bombs built using bamboo tubes appear in the 11th century. Bombs made of cast iron shells packed with explosive gunpowder date to 13th century China.
"Fat Man" (also known as Mark III) was the codename for the type of nuclear bomb the United States detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
The W54 fission bomb, deployed by the USA in Europe between 1961 and 1971, is the smallest confirmed nuclear weapon ever made. Its warhead weighed 23.13 kg (51 lb), had a yield of 0.1 kilotons and a maximum range of 4 km (2.49 miles).
“It was generating more blackmail than information. The FBI's dirty fingers were reaching everywhere.” The same year Eisenhower ordered a crackdown on gay federal employees, Hoover's FBI was bearing down on Oppenheimer and his inner circle for suspected support of the Communist Party.
“As I immersed myself in Oppenheimer's story, what I eventually came to is the realization that even though he never specifically apologized for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, his actions the night after the bombing were the actions of somebody truly possessed by guilt, truly possessed by a desire to undo what he had done,” …
Hiroshima: Atomic Blast That Changed The World Turns 75 The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were said at the time to be justified as the only way to end World War II. Seventy-five years later, legal experts say they would now be war crimes.
The U.S. wanted to force a quick surrender by the Japanese to reduce the number of American lives lost. In addition, it was secretly decided at the Yalta Summit in February 1945 that the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan.
Tsar Bomba, (Russian: “King of Bombs”) , byname of RDS-220, also called Big Ivan, Soviet thermonuclear bomb that was detonated in a test over Novaya Zemlya island in the Arctic Ocean on October 30, 1961. The largest nuclear weapon ever set off, it produced the most powerful human-made explosion ever recorded.
The most significant material constraint on using nuclear weapons was the risk of a wider war with China. U.S. leaders worried that a U.S. invasion of North Vietnam or the use of tactical nuclear weapons there could bring China into the war.
As only one bomb was built to completion, that capability has never been demonstrated. The remaining bomb casings are located at the Russian Atomic Weapon Museum in Sarov and the Museum of Nuclear Weapons, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute Of Technical Physics, in Snezhinsk.
The US carried out more than a million bombing raids during the 20-year conflict, dropping some 5 million tonnes of ordnance on the Southeast Asian country. About a third of the munitions, including cluster bombs, did not explode on impact.
By the end of 1945, the bombing had killed an estimated 140,000 people in Hiroshima, and a further 74,000 in Nagasaki. In the years that followed, many of the survivors would face leukemia, cancer, or other terrible side effects from the radiation.
The Tsar Bomba is the single most physically powerful device ever deployed on Earth, the most powerful nuclear bomb tested and the largest human-made explosion in history. For comparison, the largest weapon ever produced by the US, the now-decommissioned B41, had a predicted maximum yield of 25 Mt (100 PJ).
FARO, Wayne County — United States military leaders have admitted to losing six nuclear weapons since 1950. Unsealed documents show one is in the Mediterranean Sea, two are in the Pacific Ocean, two in the Atlantic Ocean and one is in Eastern North Carolina.
His reputation for his role in ending World War II and the mystery around the once-secret town of Los Alamos have sparked tourism around labs, test sites, the scientist's home and other places connected to Oppenheimer and the atomic bomb.
Oppenheimer sold his family's 40% stake in De Beers, the world's biggest diamond producer, to mining company Anglo American in 2012 for $5.2 billion in cash. He maintains private equity investments in Africa, Asia, the US and Europe through London-based Stockdale Street and Johannesburg-based Tana Africa Capital.
For a brief moment, he was heralded as a hero, the brilliant mind who cracked the atom and ushered humanity into a new age. But that wouldn't last, and Oppenheimer would spend the rest of his life trying to navigate the shifting tides of scientific discovery and public opinion.
The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that after five years there were perhaps 200,000 or more fatalities as a result of the bombing, while the city of Hiroshima has estimated that 237,000 people were killed directly or indirectly by the bomb's effects, including burns, radiation sickness, and cancer.
The explicit reason was to swiftly end the war with Japan. But it was also intended to send a message to the Soviets. Ever since America dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, the question has persisted: Was that magnitude of death and destruction really needed to end World War II