The report puts the economic cost of air pollution in India at $150 billion, with the transportation sector causing 20-35 per cent of the PM 2.5 pollution. Other sources of pollution are industrial units, coal-fired power plants and biomass burning.
Fuel wood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze and smoke observed above rural and urban India, and in satellite pictures of the country. Fuelwood and biomass cakes are used for cooking and general heating needs.
The Burning of Fossil Fuels
Most of the air pollution takes place due to the incomplete burning of fossil fuels. These include coal, oil, and gasoline to produce energy for electricity or transportation. The release of CO at a high level indicates how much fossil fuel is burned.
Air pollutants may be natural, such as wildfires, or may be synthetic (manmade). Air pollutants are classified as primary pollutants and secondary pollutants. (ii) Secondary air pollutants are formed because of reactions between primary pollutants and other elements in the atmosphere, such as the ozone.
Top Ten India's Most Polluted Cities (2023)
|ANNUAL PM 2.5
Overall, Delhi-NCR was found to be the most polluted sub-region in north India, with summer average PM2. 5 at 71 µg/m³. Bhiwadi's summer average was the highest at 134 micrograms per cubic metre, followed by Manesar (119 µg/m³), Ghaziabad (101 µg/m³), Delhi (97 µg/m³), Gurugram (94 µg/m³) and Noida (80 µg/m³).
Of the world's most polluted 30 cities, 22 are in India, according to research by IQ AirVisual, a Swiss-based group that gathers air-quality data globally, and Greenpeace. The remaining eight cities are all in Pakistan, Bangladesh and China – but the list doesn't include Beijing, which comes in at number 122.
In an index of countries' environmental health from Yale and Columbia universities, India ranks a dismal 177th out of 180," says an article in the latest issue of the magazine. "Recent estimates put the annual death toll from breathing pm 2.5 alone at 1.2m-2.2m a year.
Pollution happens when the environment is contaminated, or dirtied, by waste, chemicals, and other harmful substances. There are three main forms of pollution: air, water, and land.
Top polluting sector: fossil fuels
It is no surprise that the fossil fuels sector is the most polluting in the world. Despite this knowledge, emissions from fossil fuels keep increasing. After a brief decline during the Covid 19 pandemic, they grew by 1% in 2022, reaching 40.5 gigatons of CO2.
What you can do about air pollutionDrive your car less.Keep your car in good repair.Turn off your engine.Don't burn your garbage.Limit backyards fire in the city.Plant and care for trees.Switch to electric or hand-powered lawn equipment.Use less energy.
This is due to the large number of power plants and industries set up around this area. These have been a major cause for acid rain, which has reacted with the marble (calcium carbonate) the Taj Mahal is made of.
Rankings: 20 Most Polluted Cities in India in 2023Hassan (242.04 µg/m3)Bhiwadi (103.08 µg/m3)Faridabad (87.90 µg/m3)Gurugram (87.83 µg/m3)Delhi (84.17 µg/m3)Kalyan (81.93 µg/m3)Charkhi Dadri (76.34 µg/m3)Bahadurgarh (76.30 µg/m3)
Real-time India Most polluted city ranking
|Sawai Madhopur, Rajasthan
The 10 most polluted countries in the world are based on air quality index (AQI) rankings and include Chad, Iraq, Pakistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Kuwait, India, Egypt, and Tajikistan.
Singapore is famous for being the cleanest country in Asia (and maybe even the world). Chewing gum has been banned in an attempt to keep the streets clean and police even do spot checks in public toilets to keep them in pristine condition.
Japan. Japan is the cleanest country in Asia because of the country's culture and modern infrastructure.
It increases the risk of respiratory infections, heart disease and lung cancer. Both short and long term exposure to air pollutants have been associated with health impacts. More severe impacts affect people who are already ill.
While it's difficult to know exactly how many marine animals are killed by plastic pollution, it's been estimated that plastic pollution kills 100,000 marine mammals every year. 81 out of 123 marine mammal species are known to have eaten or been entangled in plastic, and all seven sea turtle species are affected.
The immense urban growth of Chinese cities substantially increases the need for consumer goods, vehicles and energy. This in turn increases the burning of fossil fuels, resulting in smog. Exposure to Smog poses a threat to the health of Chinese citizens.
Australia topped the list as the least polluted country in the world, with 7 cities in the top 25. Of the 25 least polluted cities in the world with the best air quality, Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Estonia) dominated the rankings with some of the cleanest air in the world in 2022.
Exposure to air pollution can affect everyone's health. When we breathe in air pollutants, they can enter our bloodstream and contribute to coughing or itchy eyes and cause or worsen many breathing and lung diseases, leading to hospitalizations, cancer, or even premature death.
10 Best Ways to Reduce Air PollutionUsing public transports.Turn off the lights when not in use.Recycle and Reuse.No to plastic bags.Reduction of forest fires and smoking.Use of fans instead of Air Conditioner.Use filters for chimneys.Avoid usage of crackers.
Hence, the Taj Mahal is turning yellow mainly due to these reasons: air pollution, discolouration of marble due to oxidation of its constituents, environmental neglect and wear and tear caused by millions of tourists who visit it every year.
Acid Rain Areas in India
There have been reports of lowering soil pH in portions of Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, coastal Karnataka, and Kerala.